Fast and Furious Tire Design

Tire Engineering Solution

Problem Statement:

What is a tire? A common object in the daily lives of millions of drivers – tires are a treasure trove of technology!

When it comes to safety, tires are one of the most important components of your vehicle. The brakes stop the wheels, not your car! And it’s actually your tires that stop it.

A survey conducted by RRCGB (Reported Road Casualties Great Britain) found that around 2% of fatal road accidents and casualties over a five-year period from 2008 to 2012 had tire defects recorded as a contributory factor, as did around 1% of serious and slight injury-reported accidents and casualties. Similarly, data shows that over a 10-year period from 2007 to 2016, 809 people were killed in accidents on super highways, and the condition of the vehicle tires had been the contributing factor in causing 9.52% (77) of deaths in accidents in Taiwan (Ministry Of Transportation and Communication (MOTC), Taiwan, 2017).

tire workflows with one model in SIMULIA
Fig.1: Integrated tire workflows with one master model

The tire is the only part of the car that touches the road. Tires must strike a balance between traction, comfort, durability, energy efficiency and overall cost. Most tires perform well in everyday situations, but difficult conditions will reveal their differences. As a result of these competing needs, tires are more complex to design and build than you might think. Over 200 ingredients go into a tire, mainly rubber, steel wires, and rubber reinforced with fabric or steel. They play a vital role in safety, fuel efficiency, performance and eco-friendliness.

Tire manufacturers create many different designs and use the power of simulation technology to test and select the best tire concepts to be developed. A prototype tire is then made to test the tire’s ability to provide the desired characteristics such as tire vertical displacement, vertical stiffness, footprint contact patch parameters, tire rolling resistance coefficient, lateral force, and slip angle behavior. Custom-designing a tire for a particular vehicle typically takes many months of testing, inspection and quality checks by the tire maker.

The work done for a customer engagement with SIMULIA‘s Tire Engineering solution mainly focused on the integrated design and simulation solutions which includes:

  • Automatic model build for tire inflation, footprint, rolling resistance, force and moment with meshed tire axisymmetric geometry as an input using process composer templates
  • UI to change the tire design parameters and to select the simulations to be run
  • Key tire result parameters availability for each simulation directly in process template either as plots or values
Solution:
  • This solution is based on the common master model in which the same unified model is used for the all tire workflows shown in Fig. 1.
  • This end-to-end solution is available in the form of process templates in which the simulation loads, boundary conditions are predefined. This ensures that the user does not need to worry about setting up the model again and again and instead just needs to select the 2D cross section of the tire to be analyzed. The process template will automatically mesh the cross-section and perform the simulation. Once a process is captured, experts can deploy templates of the process within their organizations for consumption by more non-expert users. With the process templates, it is possible to outsource simulation at the designer level.
  • Workflows are integrated with each other – i.e., the output from one workflow becomes the required input to the other workflow. For example, steady state thermal analysis takes heat flux as an input from rolling resistance workflow where the actual heat dissipation is simulated, similarly the surface film coefficients are taken from aerodynamic drag. The 2D model creation of steady state heat transfer uses the same master model used to build the 2D axisymmetric model for structural workflow.
tire simulation using process composer in SIMULIA
Fig. 2: Tire Simulation Process in Process Composer

Conclusions:

  • This process can be directly launched from the web. The user does not need to open the simulation applications
  • Simulation input parameters and results parameters can be visualized in the same UI after simulation solve
  • This fully automated simulation process allows design space exploration to select the best design
  • This solution provides very fast prediction of the key tire performance parameters
  • For the customer, we brought the simulation execution time down to about 4.5 hrs from a few weeks (from 2D inflation to force and moment simulation)

Humans invented the wheel in 3500 B.C. and the first tire innovation came out in 1880 A.D. It took us many thousands of years to innovate the tire from wheel.

With our Tire Engineering solution you can create new, innovative tire designs very quickly, in a matter of just a few weeks!  This is true to SIMULIA’s mission of harmonizing Product, Nature and Life.

For more information, or if you have questions about this particular IPE, please contact: John.Lewis@3ds.com, Rajesh.Nagose@3ds.com, Jayant.Pawar@3ds.com, Anand.Pathak@3ds.com


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Katie Corey

Katie manages SIMULIA's social media, blog and online communities. As a writer and technical communicator, she is interested in and passionate about creating an impactful user experience. Katie is a native Rhode Islander and loves telling others about all it has to offer. As a self-proclaimed nerd, she enjoys a variety of hobbies including history, astronomy, science/technology, science fiction, geocaching, true crime, fashion and anything associated with nature and the outdoors. She is also mom to four amazing furbabies (2 cats and 2 dogs).

Deepak Goyal

Dr. Goyal is a Senior Technical Specialist, currently playing the role of simulation consultant in SIMULIA's Aerospace & Defense Industry growth team. He received his M.S. & Ph.D. degrees in Aerospace Engineering at Texas A&M University in August 2003 & December 2007 respectively. He is a recipient of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) open topic graduate award in the year 2006. In academia, he has conducted extensive FAA, NASA & AFOSR funded research in tape laminated composites, textile composites & materials with complex microstructures. Since January 2008, he has been working with Dassault Systèmes SIMULIA Corp. where he has provided training & consulting services to SIMULIA’ s customers in various industries. Dr. Goyal has published several journal papers in highly reputed peer-reviewed international journals and has also reviewed scholarly articles of other researchers for leading journals in the area of Composites Materials.

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